This project is partially supported by National Science Foundation - United States under Grant No. CMMI 1663657 “Collaborative Research: Real-time Management of Large Fleets of Self-Driving Vehicles Using Virtual CyberTracks”

The second author also thanks for the early support from FHWA project titled “The Effective Integration of Analysis, Modeling, and Simulation Tools - AMS Data hub Concept of Operations”.

Many thanks for GMNS specification efforts led by Scott Smith and Ian Berg from Volpe Center, USDOT. Their TRB poster can be found at

This document is prepared with the help from Entai Wang and Chongnan Li.